We’ve written in other blogs how to identify which animals might be causing damage to your fruit trees, but it’s also important to think about strategies for preventing the damage!
In the case of big animals, it’s usually a case of protecting the trees using either tree guards, fences or netting enclosures.
Which of these you choose will depend on:
- the specific pest damage you’re trying to prevent;
- the size and age of the trees;
- whether you need a permanent or temporary solution; and/or
- your capacity to buy or build something in terms of ability, time, materials and money.
So, while it’s impossible for us to give solutions for every specific situation, here’s our 5 top strategies:
- Deterrents: Once you’ve identified the pest, do some research into what they don’t like, and consider whether you can make the environment unpleasant for them. For example, hares are herbivores and are put off by the smell of meat, so a paste made out of animal fat and strong-smelling herbs applied to the trunks, or blood and bone scattered around the trees, may be enough to put them off.
- Tree guards: These can range from the simple corflute guards we use on the farm, which are fantastic because they’re durable and reusable (but have the disadvantage of not being wide enough to enclose the low branches, so they only protect the trunk) to a larger and more durable type of guard, which has the disadvantage of being more expensive and time consuming to build, and limiting easy access to the tree.
- Fences: Installing permanent fences to keep out animals like kangaroos, deer, hares or rabbits is an engineering challenge, and can be quite costly. However, if you’re serious about food growing it’s a fantastic investment and will pay you back many times in terms of protected future crops. Once you’ve identified the problem animals, do some investigation into the type of fencing recommended to keep them out; for example, a kangaroo exclusion netting fence needs to be at least 1.5 – 2.0 m tall, and is more effective if electrified. Deer fencing works best if a double fence is installed, and rabbits and hares will dig under a fence unless the bottom is protected with buried mesh.
- Netting enclosures: These are a wonderful idea, and can serve the dual purpose of keeping out both larger animals as well as birds, fruit bats, and even possums. The one in the photo below (which we saw at Kalangadoo Organics) is made from PVC pipe. The walls are reinforced over the bottom half with chicken wire, with bird netting over the hoops at the top – a brilliant solution.
- Other animals: One of the natural predators of kangaroos and wallabies is the dingo, so a dog in the garden or orchard may keep them away.
Building appropriate protection for your trees can easily become one of those jobs that keeps falling to the bottom of the ‘to do’ list, but in nearly every case it’s worth the time and energy. To help you bump it up the list, we’ve included some resources on building hoop net systems (such as the one above) in the short course Protect Your Crop From Birds.
The reality is, if you’re trying to grow food in an environment where lots of animals are hungry, you’ll need to build protection to make sure you get some. You may like the idea of sharing, but they don’t!