Almond harvest time

Green almonds pre-harvest before the husks have opened
Green almonds pre-harvest before the husks have opened

Apart from all the fruits that are grown commercially in the orchards on our farm, we also have a pretty big garden, with a wide variety of fruit and nut trees, including 8 almonds (2 each of 4 different varieties) under net.

We’re big fans of nut trees in gardens, particularly if you’re trying to build a permaculture (which stands for “permanent agriculture”) system. We’ve written about them before here and you can find out more about how to create a permaculture system here.

Almonds ready to harvest - the husks have opened and started to dry
Almonds ready to harvest – the husks have opened and started to dry

You can tell when they’re ripe because the husks open up, as you can see above, exposing the shell underneath (and the almond nut is inside the shell).

This week we started picking them, because some of them had started opening up. The other indication they’re ready is that some are on the ground, but we don’t want too many on the ground because in past years we’ve found they’re a pain to find in the grass, because we usually let it grow quite long underneath the almond trees.

Long grass under the trees can hamper the harvest!
Long grass under the trees can hamper the harvest!

This year we learned from previous year’s pain, and cut the grass a few weeks before harvest, which made the process much easier!

After we’ve picked, we remove the husks before we store the nuts, and then we shell them as we need them through the year as they stay much fresher in the shell.

Mowed grass under almond trees makes it easier to find the fallen nuts
Mowed grass under almond trees makes it easier to find the fallen nuts

Now that the trees are mature, 8 trees supply us with enough nuts for eating all year, plus we grind some into meal and use them in cooking as well.

Our small almond block is planted in 2 rows, with 2 trees each of 4 different varieties. Like so many other well-meaning but vague gardeners, we lost the tags, so we don’t know which variety is which! (This is one of the things we caution against in our Grow Great Fruit program — so do as we say, not as we do!)

Variety 1 in our almond block

Normally we pick the whole crop together, but this year we’ve kept the different varieties separate, and will attempt to identify them. As you can see from the photos of the first 3 varieties we’ve picked, they’re all quite different. Variety 1 has a very papery shell (which suggests it might be Canadian Papershell).

Variety 2 in our almond block

We planted pollinisers together, so variety 2 must be either Ne Plus Ultra, Mission or IXL. Ne Plus Ultra has very large kernels, and as you can see from the photo (the sunnies are there to give a size comparison between varieties), #2 is much smaller than #1, so that rules out Ne Plus Ultra. It’s more likely to be Mission, which yields relatively small kernels. Other options include Johnsons Prolific or IXL.

Variety 3 in our almond block

Varieties #3 and #4 were also pollinisers for each other, so the likelihood is that they are Brandes Jordan and Chellaston, but we have no idea which is which! Oh well, they’re all delicious, so it doesn’t really matter, though it’s going to leave me forever curious…

A beautiful almond flower at sunset
A beautiful almond flower at sunset

Four reasons for yellow leaves on fruit trees

Welcome to autumn! Though we’re having quite a warm summery week here in central Vic, we’ve had the first few cool, crisp mornings, and there’s a definite shift in the air.

Leaves on Angelina plum trees (on the LHS) starting to turn yellow in autumn
Leaves on Angelina plum trees (on the LHS) starting to turn yellow in autumn

Even if it still feels quite summery at your place, you can expect to start seeing some typical autumn features in your fruit trees soon.

For example you might start to see the leaves on your fruit trees start to turn yellow (if they haven’t already), especially if you’ve already picked the crop. The typical pattern is that the leaves will stay green and continue doing their job as long as the tree is bearing fruit, but once the fruit is off, it will quickly start go into senescence, or winter dormancy.

Close-up of yellowing leaves on plum tree
Close-up of yellowing leaves on plum tree

At that time, the tree starts to withdraw all the useful nutrients from the leaves back into the buds and bark — the first sign of this happening is the leaves changing colour. This type of yellowing is completely normal, and you see it every year.

Another reason for yellowing leaves that is of more concern is caused by lack of water, as you can see on this cherry tree.

A cherry tree that has turned yellow from lack of water
A cherry tree that has turned yellow from lack of water

It’s all too easy for this to happen when you have an automatic irrigation system, because drippers can easily block up, and unless you’re checking them regularly (which is a really good idea), you might not realise you have a problem until the tree starts telling you loud and clear by the leaves turning unseasonally yellow (you can see all the other trees nearby are still green).

Another common reason for leaves to turn yellow is from nutritional deficiencies.

Iron deficiency (chlorosis) on peach leaves
Iron deficiency (chlorosis) on peach leaves

A number of nutritional deficiencies can cause yellow leaves as one of their symptoms, including iron (as you can see above), manganese and zinc.

The fourth reason for yellow leaves is because of a virus disease, such as apple mosaic virus as you can see in this leaf.

Apple mosaic virus on leaf
Apple mosaic virus on leaf

Viral diseases are not good news, but unfortunately are not really treatable, so the best bet is to look after the tree as well as you can, and try to avoid the virus spreading by not planting other trees of the same type nearby.

So if the leaves on your fruit tree are turning yellow it’s probably a perfectly normal seasonal response, but your tree might also be trying to tell you something! If you feel like you need more detailed help diagnosing what your fruit tree is trying to tell you, please download a copy of Keep Your Fruit Trees Free From Disease short course.

Apricot leaves showing beautiful autumn yellow and orange colours
Apricot leaves showing beautiful autumn yellow and orange colours

Are heritage nectarines worth the bother?

Have you grown any nectarines that look like this?

Goldmine nectarines with brown spots
Goldmine nectarines with brown spots

This is the Goldmine nectarine, and sadly, they tend to do this when they get a drop of rain, if the weather conditions don’t suit them perfectly, or when you look at them the wrong way!

Heritage varieties often have thin skin, and Goldmine are a particular culprit. This means they tend to mark very easily. It’s one of the reasons that many heritage varieties are no longer grown commercially, because they’re just not robust enough to get to market in good condition.

Despite this, we’ve grown them in our orchards and sold them for many years, because they’re absolutely delicious, and worth the effort!

A Goldmine nectarine showing damage on the skin from Leaf curl fungal disease
A Goldmine nectarine showing damage on the skin from Leaf curl fungal disease

If the marks are severe enough they can also become the site for an infection to begin, but usually these are just skin marks, caused by rain, that don’t effect the quality of the fruit underneath. But they’re also prone to other problems — for example if you get a severe case of Leaf curl on your nectarine trees, Goldmine can show damage on the skin of the fruit, even though this disease mainly affects the leaves.

But despite all the difficulties, we love them and frequently recommend them for home orchards. If you can tend the tree carefully, protect the fruit and then pick it when it’s beautifully ripe and ready to eat, you can end up with a result as perfect as these beauties!

Perfect Goldmine nectarines
Perfect Goldmine nectarines

It’s quite hard to find Goldmine trees these days (and almost impossible to buy the fruit) because they’re very unfashionable, but if you have space for a tree in your garden and can track one down, and you have time to look after it properly, it will reward you.

We’ve put together a short course called Peachy Keen to teach you how to control Leaf curl and other diseases that can affect your nectarine and peach trees (they’re very closely related), to give you the best possible chance of getting some decent fruit from those heritage varieties