How to Prevent Leaf Curl

Leaf curl is a nasty fungal disease that affects peaches and nectarines, but it’s often confused for other things (well, other things are sometimes mis-labelled as Leaf curl).

Here’s what it looks like:

A peach tree with the classic red leaves of Leaf curl disease
A peach tree with the classic red leaves of Leaf curl disease

There are other things (both pests and diseases) that can make leaves curl in other types of fruit trees, but this particular pathogen only affects your peach and nectarine trees.

If you get a bad case, it can even affect the fruit, and really bad cases will make the fruit fail and fall off while it’s very small, before it gets a chance to grow. Notice how similar it looks to the disease on the leaves, with a rough, raised texture and the red colouring.

A nectarine infected by curly le
A nectarine infected by curly leaf

Why are we showing you what Leaf curl looks like in the middle of winter? Because if you saw any signs of this disease last year, now is the time to be treating your trees to prevent it happening again this year.

It might seem too early to be thinking about spring, but if you wait until you see the disease, it’s way too late to put out the preventive sprays.

A Goldmine nectarine bud swelling
A Goldmine nectarine bud swelling

The trigger to spray is bud-swell. Different varieties reach bud-swell at different times, which is where the skill comes in. Depending on where you live and which varieties you have, your trees may already have reached (or be past) bud-swell, but if your peach and nectarine trees still look completely dormant, that’s because they are. From now on you need to be monitoring each different variety so you can spray them at the right time.

Once you’re sure your tree has reached bud-swell, it’s time to apply a preventive copper spray – Bordeaux (which is made by diluting hydrated lime in water, and copper sulphate in water, then mixing them together), or a spray containing copper hydroxide are the best options for home use. The Better Fruit With Wise Organic Spraying short course includes a video demo of how to mix Bordeaux spray if you need more detail.

Is it spring already?

Surely not … and yet … we think these peach buds on our Anzac peach tree might be starting to swell soon.

Early budswell on an Anzac peach tree
Early budswell on an Anzac peach tree

Anzacs are a great ‘indicator’ variety for us, because they’re one of the early varieties to show signs of movement in spring.

Almonds are another great indicator as they’re also very early. Rather than having to monitor the whole orchard, we just go and look at the Anzacs and almonds to see what’s happening.

Almond flowers at sunset
Almond flowers at sunset

If you have peach and nectarine trees in your garden or farm, it’s time to start monitoring them for budswell.

Why?

Because it’s the trigger for putting on a spray to prevent Leaf Curl, which is a fungal disease that can have devastating consequences, particularly for young trees.

Leaf curl fungal disease on a peach tree
Leaf curl fungal disease on a peach tree

A bad case of leaf curl can even affect the fruit.

A Goldmine nectarine infected with Leaf curl disease
A Goldmine nectarine infected with Leaf curl disease

The good news is, it’s (mostly) preventable. You can find details about how and when to spray in Keep Your Fruit Trees Free From Disease. This is one of our most comprehensive short online courses, and includes guidance on how to manage and prevent about a dozen of the most common diseases of fruit trees.

Really year 1 for the nursery?

Collecting quince seed from organic quinces
Collecting quince seed from organic quinces

This time of year we’re twiddling our thumbs waiting for the leaves to drop off the nursery trees so that we can dig them up for people’s bare rooted orders and move them around to make way for new areas of nursery.

Pear seed is stored in sand before planting
Pear seed is stored in sand before planting

We are also collecting and cleaning seed for apple, quince, pear and peach rootstock.

Apples that have been crushed to harvest the seeds
Apples that have been crushed to harvest the seeds

It’s nearly time to collect our plum cuttings which will become next years budding rootstock and we are also beginning to diligently collect and label our scion wood. This is the pieces of first year growth off the varieties of trees that we want to propagate. We store the scions in the fridge until spring when we use it to graft onto our rootstock in the nursery.

Plum cuttings
Plum cuttings

Foremost in our minds at this time of year however is our organic bare rooted fruit tree orders. These orders close this Sunday, June 30.

You might have bought trees from us before … and therefore be wondering why we’ve been saying it’s our first year of operation?

Previously, Katie and Hugh sold trees through Mt Alexander Fruit Gardens. Most of the trees came from a wholesale nursery, supplemented by a few trees from their own nursery (which were left over from what they’d grown to plant in their own orchard).

Then, they finished re-planting the orchard, leased it to Ant (Tellurian Fruit Gardens), and started the Harcourt Organic Farming Co-op (HOFC).

But, we didn’t want to stop growing fruit trees on the farm.

Why?

Because we (Sas and Katie) want to learn as much as we can from our resident master-nurseryman Merv Carr (Katie’s dad), we want to preserve heritage varieties by propagating them, and we want to help as many people as we can grow their own food.

So, Katie and Sas joined forces to start Carr’s Organic Fruit Tree Nursery (named after Merv), and joined HOFC.

Joining the co-op has meant that we’ve also been able to get organic certification for the nursery – in what we think is a Victorian first!

We’ve still got a fairly limited range of organic trees (and quite a few have already sold out, like our multigraft trees), but as our skills expand we’re aiming for the range of trees we sell to expand as well.

In the meantime, we’re supplementing our offering with non-organic trees from our wholesaler – our trees are clearly labelled (organic) on the website so you can tell the difference.

Hopefully that explains the whole picture – get in touch here if you have any questions at all, and jump on the website here to see what’s available and order your trees by June 30.

Cheers,


Katie, Sas and Merv