How to Plant a Fruit Tree

It’s nitty gritty time! Time to get on the end of a shovel, dig a hole, and plant your fruit tree.

Digging a hole to plant a fruit tree
Digging a hole to plant a fruit tree

We often see fruit trees tied to elaborate staking arrangements, but if you plant them the right way, there’s no need for stakes at all, your tree should be totally self-supporting.

Let’s assume you’ve already chosen the right site for your trees, and have done some earlier soil preparation e.g., planted a green manure crop, dug in some compost or manure, or even deep ripped the site.

If you planted a green manure crop, ideally you will have dug it back into the soil a week or two before you plan to plant your trees. If not, it’s best to just cut and drop the plants on the surface of the ground, rather than dig in the green manure just prior to planting your tree, as the green manure will often decompose quickly in the ground, and can create quite a bit of heat, which is not good for your young tree’s roots. 

Don’t worry if you haven’t done any soil prep at all – it’s best to get the tree in the ground asap, and then work on the soil later.

It’s great if you can dip the tree’s roots in an inoculant of some sort to populate the roots with lots of good microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi) that will help the tree get its nutrition as it grows.

Hugh stirring a lovely inoculant brew
Hugh stirring a lovely inoculant brew

We often use compost tea, or it’s also possible to buy ready-made inoculants, but unfortunately they usually come in industrial quantities.

Next, dig a hole! If you’ve done any soil prep before, the hole only needs to be big enough to accommodate the roots of your tree (and it’s fine to cut the roots back a bit to fit the hole, or to remove any damaged roots). The hole should be deep enough that when the tree is planted it will be at the level it was in the nursery.

A tree in the hole waiting to plant
A tree in the hole waiting to plant

If drainage is an issue, mound the soil up a bit and plant into this, to make sure that any heavy rainfall will be able to drain away from the roots, especially if you’re planting your tree in heavy clay. 

Add any amendments that you’re using, and mix a bit of soil back in.

Now position the tree in the hole so it’s upright, and hold it while you back-fill a few shovels of soil over the roots. Make sure the soil fills the gaps between the roots, and then carefully but firmly tamp the soil down around the roots. Now finish back-filling the hole.

In most situations you don’t need to water the tree in, unless you’re experiencing very dry soil conditions when you plant.

And finally, prune your tree!

A freshly planted (and pruned) cherry tree
A freshly planted (and pruned) cherry tree

Planting is a pretty simple process, though there are a few extra things to consider if you haven’t done any prior soil prep, you’re planting into heavy clay or very sandy soil, or are planting into a heavily weeded or pastured area without doing any soil prep, so we do go into quite a bit more detail about tree planting in the Planting Young Fruit Trees short course.

New fruit trees are a great investment in your garden and your future food security, and will be the beginning of a journey of exploration as you get to know your new tree, and learn how it performs in the location, your climate, and of course the level of care you give it!

Happy planting!

Fancy a cup of compost tea?

Having our morning cuppa - of tea, not compost!
Having our morning cuppa – of tea, not compost!

We’re always banging on about soil being the foundation of your entire food growing system, and how important it is to be constantly improving it.

So one of the common questions we’re asked, is “how?”

There are lots of techniques available to help you improve soil, like adding aged chicken manure, and compost (and we’re big fans of them). However one of the most useful (though least understood) is brewing your own compost tea.

We brew it on a big scale (as you can see in the photo below), but it’s also easy to make on a home garden scale.

Our 1,000 L compost tea brewer set up for demonstration at a workshop
Our 1,000 L compost tea brewer set up for demonstration at a workshop

So, what is it? It’s probably easiest to start with what it’s NOT, which is compost extract.

Compost extract is made by putting compost in water and swishing it around or leaving it to soak. You can do a similar thing with weeds to make a weed tea or weed extract. They’re both fantastic things to do, but all they do is to put the nutrients and any microbes present into solution.

This method doesn’t increase the number of microbes in the brew, and that’s the point of compost tea.

Hugh showing off his bathtub full of rich worm castings, which will be used to make compost tea
Hugh showing off his bathtub full of rich worm castings, which will be used to make compost tea

To brew compost tea we start with a small amount of something that’s rich in microbes, e.g., good compost, worm castings, or leaf litter from under a mature gum tree are all perfect for this. Then we put the source material in water, agitate it to knock the microbes off, then add microbe food and oxygen for 24-48 hours and voila! The microbes breed like…well, like microbes (that is, REALLY fast when conditions are right).

Components for the compost tea brewer
Components for the compost tea brewer

This turns a small amount of healthy microbes (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and protozoa) into a huge number in a very short time.

On the farm we always check the brew to make sure we’ve actually got the right kind of microbes, but that’s not necessary in a home-brew situation, as long as you follow the guidelines.

Hugh checking the compost tea to make sure it's full of microbes (and not just brown water!)
Hugh checking the compost tea to make sure it’s full of microbes (and not just brown water!)

Then we just put the tea on the soil under our fruit trees, and let the microbes go to work. 

If you want to know more about this simple and very effective method of quickly building healthy soil, we’ve designed a short course just for you! It’s called The Art of Compost Tea, it includes plans for making a home-sized brewer, and you can download it here.

3 Ways to Love Your Soil

Do you think about soil much, or is it just something you walk around on, or maybe try to grow something in?

Dark, rich, healthy looking soil
Dark, rich, healthy looking soil

If you’re a farmer or gardener (as we know many of you are), you’re probably already aware of how important the soil is, and (like Hugh) may even revel in the smell, look and feel of beautiful soil.

Hugh sprung smelling rainforest soil
Hugh sprung smelling rainforest soil

But soil is so much more than most of us realise – for example, did you know that one-quarter of the world’s biodiversity lives in the soil!

How incredible is that?

Rather than being an inert, dead thing, it’s actually a thriving community of more microbes, worms, arthropods and other insects than we can even imagine, let alone count.

That is, if you’re looking after it properly!

Treating your soil badly by using chemicals, allowing compaction to develop, letting it get waterlogged or too dry, or consistently removing organic matter without replacing it can all create conditions that don’t help your fruit trees and other plants to thrive, and in fact encourage diseases to get established.

Filling new beds with soil at our farm shop to create a native garden
Filling new beds with soil at our farm shop to create a native garden

So, what to do? Well it’s pretty simple. We love busting the myth that “it takes 100 years to make 1 cm of soil”, because in fact if you do the right things, you can build healthy soil much faster than that.

The keys are:

  1. Consistently add organic matter to your soil (i.e., anything that used to be alive: compost, manure, mulch and worm castings are the most common)
  2. Add microbes to your soil, and then feed them regularly. Compost, compost tea, or worm juice are easy ways to add microbes, and they love to eat organic matter, liquid fish, and liquid seaweed.
  3. Have live groundcover plants under your fruit trees.

It’s also important to make sure there’s enough water (but not too much), and that the soil gets enough oxygen.

If you’re not sure whether your soil is healthy, we wrote a course just for you!

Fat juicy worms with lots of food in our worm farm
Fat juicy worms with lots of food in our worm farm

There are LOTS of techniques available to help you take these key actions in your garden. One of the most useful (though least understood) is by having a worm farm, which is much easier than most people realise!