How much water is enough?

In our part of the world (central Victoria, Australia) we experience hot, dry summers, and they seem to be getting worse.  When we first came home on the farm in the late 1990s we’d have the odd day here or there over 40°C, but in recent years it’s not uncommon to have stretches of a week or more at a time with extremely high temps.

Hot conditions always beg the question…how much water is enough for fruit trees?

The rough rule of thumb we use is that a mature fruit tree, with a full crop, in the height of summer, will need about 200 litres of water per week, and if you’re installing an irrigation system we recommend that it has enough capacity to provide that much water to each tree in your garden.

However, the true answer actually depends on lots of different factors, like how old the tree is, how much fruit it has on it (if any), the soil type, what ground cover you have, and the weather, particularly the temperature and the amount of wind.

You’ll also be able to give your trees less water if you install an irrigation system, because it’s much more efficient to slowly deliver a small amount of water through drippers (for example), than you can manage with a hose or bucket.

It's important to test all the drippers at the start of the season
It’s important to test all the drippers at the start of the season

Watering your trees with either hose or bucket will inevitably lead to some water wastage through run-off, and it can also be hard to make sure the water gets down to the root zone where it’s really needed. It’s also time consuming, and can be physically hard for some people—can you tell we’re big fans of irrigation systems?

Here’s the steps to making irrigation simple and effective:

  1. Figure out how much water each of your trees will need at peak production, in hot conditions.
  2. Work out what and where your best water source is.
  3. Design and install a hose or pipe system to get the water the trees as efficiently as possible.
  4. Decide on which type of drippers and/or sprinklers you’ll use, and install them.
  5. And lastly (but importantly), add a timer or programmer to your irrigation system so it will turn itself off (and even on) automatically!

Happy watering!

(Details for how to set up a drip irrigation system are included in the Be a Wise Water Warrior short course.)

To keep the vampires away…

To keep the vampires away!

Garlic is an important marker for us Gung Hoes. It was the first crop we ever planted back in April 2015 when Mel and I first started leasing land off Katie and Hugh. It’s one of those optimistic crops. We plant it as the soil is cooling and the days are getting shorter, when the sweat and dust of summer is starting to settle and we can begin to breathe again. The winter and spring crops are tucked into their new beds (in theory) and we are hopeful for the season to come. The garlic gets planted and mulched and slowly it grows over the next 7 months. We water it and nurture it, take the weeds out so it can grow unimpeded. We hope that when we finally pull them up, they will have grown into perfectly pungent and gorgeous heads of garlic but until we pull them up, we don’t really know how its going.

This time last year when we pulled up the garlic, our hope was crushed. We lost almost two-thirds of our crop because of the wet season and what remained had bulb rot which meant that one or two cloves from each head were rotten! We salvaged and sold what we could but it was the first of a number of challenges that made for a very difficult summer for us.

Come April, ever hopeful again we planted our garlic. As usual we nurtured and cared for it for 7 long months. After consulting with our biodynamic expert friend, Janet from Newstead community garden, about the best day by the moon to harvest the garlic, we dug it up 2 weeks ago. The timing couldn’t have been better. The garlic had had almost 2 weeks of dry weather in the ground and for the first time ever, we dug it up on a blue sky day with no impending rain clouds! The game changer though was finally having a weatherproof drying shed to hang the garlic in to cure.

The timing of when to pull your garlic up is crucial. After 7 months of slow growth, there is a window of about 1–2 weeks when it’s ideal to harvest it. If you go too early, the garlic won’t have segmented into cloves; too late and the head begins to open up which means moisture, critters and dirt can get in and the garlic won’t last as long.

This year we nailed it! It is so perfect! Dark purple (thanks to the cool winter and iron-rich soil), perfectly plump and strong! We got it out just before the rain and have been curing it for 2 weeks in our shed, safe from the storms raging outside! That means Mel and Sas can sleep peacefully.

This time of year, every hour out in the patch counts. There’s beds to prepare, compost to add, seedlings to sow and plant and mulch and a small window of opportunity to do it all before its too bloody hot and everything shrivels. Amidst the spring rush, garlic makes us stop. Sit in the shade and shuck for a while. The other lovely thing about garlic is that it brings people together (unless of course you eat too much and then people may give you a bit of space!). After 2 weeks of our garlic curing, it was time to call in friends, put on a simple Gung Hoe feast and get shucking and bunching together. Many hands and all that…

We are so grateful to Deb, Cohen, Cara, Elle, Marty and Amanda for helping us shuck and plait those babies this year. So much laughter, joy and good vibes surrounded the garlic as we bunched it up. Hopefully that is infused into the food that gets made with it…

Our garlic crop also symbolises our own cycle of growing and learning as farmers. Each year we save the cream of our crop to be the next year’s seed garlic. We pick the biggest and most beautiful heads to plant, and over the years we’ve seen the consistency, hardiness and quality of our garlic improve as it adapts to our specific situation and we learn better how to care for it.

This year we are selling our garlic through the Open Food Network. An online platform that connects farmers with eaters; to order yours go to: https://openfoodnetwork.org.au/gunghoegrowers/shop

It will be available for pick up from the Harcourt Organic Farming Co-op shop on Wednesday 12th and 19th December from 9am to 1pm or from the Wesley Hill Market in Castlemaine on Saturday the 22 December. We can also post garlic around Australia too but not to Tassie or W.A.

Our garlic is available as:

15 head plait- $30
30 head plait- $60

Grow and eat well!

Sas (and Mel)

A new farming co-op emerges…

Hi there,

Hope this finds you well. As I sit writing this I feel a bit beaten and calm (i.e. tired and grateful for the shreds of rain falling at present) it has felt like a big month here for me.

When Sas and I dug up new ground for our first 30 metres of garlic 4 years ago here in Harcourt we didn’t really have a plan. We just wanted to grow and try our hands on this dream we both had igniting us forward… Four years on and we’re still such grasshoppers! But becoming more and more at peace with this fact. One of the reasons I fell in love with farming was the fact that I was working with nature. I had no other choice – it is far more powerful than me and thanks to climate change is becoming more and more unpredictable. Something about this really humbled me and I felt like I was respectfully working with something much greater than me. In the last 4 years this has made me feel more broken than I think I realised, but this oncoming season both Sas and I seem to be more accepting of the fact that there’s always one pest that will cause havoc and at least one of our crops will fail…

I know that we would never have dreamed that down the track we would be part of a dynamic, system changing small farming co-operative. This last week has both heartened me and given me insight to the reality that even though we aren’t doing anything new (we’re just living in the past really, haha) we are pushing current systems, ideologies and having the opportunity to really work to our values from the ground up (yes, pun intended. I rarely understand them, let alone use them!). We are not alone in this movement, I know this for a fact, and it’s comforting talking to others near and far who are also actioning the very same ideals and beliefs.

As I’ve mentioned in other blogs, the relatively recent arrivals of Ant (Tellurian Fruit Gardens) and Tess (Sellars Farmhouse Creamery) and a formal partnership in the nursery (Carr’s Organic Fruit Tree Nursery) has formed a supportive farming community on this very land. I’m constantly learning new things about fruit trees, grafting, cows, pasture, innovative energy systems…the list goes on. It’s great.

Last weekend we had our official launch into the world as a formal collective – the ‘Harcourt Organic Farming Co-op’ — in the form of a farm open day.  To me it was big on several levels, not to mention the fact that we are all treading new ground with the co-operative model we are starting here. It’s like we’re unveiling ourselves to the world not knowing how it’s really going to work out!

And how special it was to be showered with such support from the community. We had some volunteers help us out on the day who normally either work or trade time for produce lend a hand serving, welcoming, MC-ing, washing dishes and cleaning the packing shed so it was decent enough to serve scones out of. We are indebted to you guys—thank you (Cohen, Lucy, Grace, Oli, Cara, Marty, Paris, Danny, Dan)!  And then all the people near and far who celebrated with us stepping into the unknown.

Merv (Katie’s Dad) gave a really special speech highlighting his history as an orchardist in this area and how he’s seen it change from a lot of small family owned and operated farms to mainly large company farms…I think we all felt pretty chuffed to be called part of Merv’s new family (as he said in his speech).

On the open day all the separate enterprises that make up the collective gave a little rundown on what they do…on the Gung Hoe tour it was so heartening to see people engaging with how we grow and why we grow, so many questions that showed us just how interested people are.

We in Gung Hoe land rarely get a chance to explain the values that underpin why we have taken on this endeavour and why we want it to succeed.  Having the open day on Sunday and then a more informal Industry Day on Monday gave us just that opportunity. The industry day was about us opening the opportunity to have chefs, caterers, restaurant owners, retail owners, etc. come out to the farm and see where the produce they are purchasing comes from, how it’s grown and why, and build the connection further beyond a weekly drop-off g’day.

When Monday actually happened and they rocked up in their rad cars with home-made cakes, families and some staff, we realised the power of connection and relationships. We had a short walk around the patch and spoke about our techniques and how we are building the soil slowly but surely, and why the lettuce is so crisp, and how many varieties of leafy things go into the salad mix, and here’s some freshly picked broad beans we can eat over morning tea.

We also had insight into how it works for them working with us, using our produce to create meals. How hard it is sometimes to work for someone else when it means you have to set aside some of your passion. A large chunk of our conversations were about food systems and how Sas and I are passionate about feeding our local community with truly nutrient-rich produce (because the soil is getting better, it means the plants are also better for you) and building skills so young people can grow up knowing they can have power by growing their own food and knowing where it comes from, that farming can be a viable and enjoyable career path.

It was inspiring for both parties to meet on the land and talk food with each other. I have great respect for chefs who understand great produce and use it in their culinary art. Don’t get me wrong – I’m not talking about it has to be all fancy and stuff – not at all.  It’s more about seeing them use their passion and skill in the way they cook the food; they are letting the produce speak for itself, and comments like, “it’s the first time I’ve seen staff eat more salad than chips” and “I thought I’d have to blanch the peas, but there’s no need – they’re so sweet!”

Massive ups to Brunno, Ben, Jason and Tim for empowering actions and conversations, and the piccies 😉

So, in short (sorry this has been a rather long ramble), although it can feel vulnerable opening up yourself, values, work to the world, it is our launching into the greater sphere…strengthening relationships with each other to strengthen and make our imprint on the current food system a lasting one.

Thanks for following us in this journey.  Peace out!
Mel