How to Prevent Leaf Curl

Leaf curl is a nasty fungal disease that affects peaches and nectarines, but it’s often confused for other things (well, other things are sometimes mis-labelled as Leaf curl).

Here’s what it looks like:

A peach tree with the classic red leaves of Leaf curl disease
A peach tree with the classic red leaves of Leaf curl disease

There are other things (both pests and diseases) that can make leaves curl in other types of fruit trees, but this particular pathogen only affects your peach and nectarine trees.

If you get a bad case, it can even affect the fruit, and really bad cases will make the fruit fail and fall off while it’s very small, before it gets a chance to grow. Notice how similar it looks to the disease on the leaves, with a rough, raised texture and the red colouring.

A nectarine infected by curly le
A nectarine infected by curly leaf

Why are we showing you what Leaf curl looks like in the middle of winter? Because if you saw any signs of this disease last year, now is the time to be treating your trees to prevent it happening again this year.

It might seem too early to be thinking about spring, but if you wait until you see the disease, it’s way too late to put out the preventive sprays.

A Goldmine nectarine bud swelling
A Goldmine nectarine bud swelling

The trigger to spray is bud-swell. Different varieties reach bud-swell at different times, which is where the skill comes in. Depending on where you live and which varieties you have, your trees may already have reached (or be past) bud-swell, but if your peach and nectarine trees still look completely dormant, that’s because they are. From now on you need to be monitoring each different variety so you can spray them at the right time.

Once you’re sure your tree has reached bud-swell, it’s time to apply a preventive copper spray – Bordeaux (which is made by diluting hydrated lime in water, and copper sulphate in water, then mixing them together), or a spray containing copper hydroxide are the best options for home use. The Better Fruit With Wise Organic Spraying short course includes a video demo of how to mix Bordeaux spray if you need more detail.

Is it spring already?

Surely not … and yet … we think these peach buds on our Anzac peach tree might be starting to swell soon.

Early budswell on an Anzac peach tree
Early budswell on an Anzac peach tree

Anzacs are a great ‘indicator’ variety for us, because they’re one of the early varieties to show signs of movement in spring.

Almonds are another great indicator as they’re also very early. Rather than having to monitor the whole orchard, we just go and look at the Anzacs and almonds to see what’s happening.

Almond flowers at sunset
Almond flowers at sunset

If you have peach and nectarine trees in your garden or farm, it’s time to start monitoring them for budswell.

Why?

Because it’s the trigger for putting on a spray to prevent Leaf Curl, which is a fungal disease that can have devastating consequences, particularly for young trees.

Leaf curl fungal disease on a peach tree
Leaf curl fungal disease on a peach tree

A bad case of leaf curl can even affect the fruit.

A Goldmine nectarine infected with Leaf curl disease
A Goldmine nectarine infected with Leaf curl disease

The good news is, it’s (mostly) preventable. You can find details about how and when to spray in Keep Your Fruit Trees Free From Disease. This is one of our most comprehensive short online courses, and includes guidance on how to manage and prevent about a dozen of the most common diseases of fruit trees.

Warming Winter Cumquat and Almond Cake

A delicious cumquat and almond cake - perfect for winter nights
A delicious cumquat and almond cake – perfect for winter nights

As anyone who grows their own food knows, it’s incredibly satisfying creating dishes from ingredients from your own garden. So we got double pleasure making this cake using home-grown cumquats and almonds.

The first step was picking the cumquats.

The almonds were picked at the end of summer, and have been sitting in their shells waiting for attention since then, so the next job was taking off the outside husks, then using the nutcracker to crush the shell and get the almonds out. A quick whiz in the blender turns almonds into almond meal, and we’re ready to make the cake.

Home grown almonds waiting to be shelled and turned into delicious cake
Home grown almonds waiting to be shelled and turned into delicious cake

Gluten Free Almond and Cumquat Cake
(This is our adaptation of a recipe by Helen Goh that appeared in ‘The Age’.)

Fruit prep
500 g cumquats
160 g raw sugar

Cake
250 g cream cheese
250 g raw sugar
4 large free range eggs
2 tsp brandy
140 g almond meal
120 g rice flour
1 tspn baking powder

  1. Slice and de-seed the cumquats (roughly into quarters if they’re small, eighths if the fruit is larger). Toss in a bowl with the sugar and leave.
  2. Cream the cream cheese and sugar together in the blender, then add the eggs and brandy.
  3. Mix the almond meal, flour and baking powder together and add the dry mixture to the egg mixture.
  4. Use a 23 cm round cake tin, and be warned, the cumquat mixture is syrupy so if you’re using a split-rim two-piece cake tin, definitely line it with baking paper or foil. 
  5. Spread the cumquat and sugar mixture in the base of the tin, then cover gently with the cake batter.
  6. Bake at 180C for 45 minutes or until a skewer comes out clean. Cool for 15 minutes and then invert the cake onto a plate.

As always, serve with lashings of excellent cream, and preferably eat next to a roaring open fire.  For some of our other favourite ways of using your home-grown fruit you might want to check out our comprehensive Fabulous Fruit Preserving short course.