There’s a fresh patch of hoed ground in the Nursery. Merv fired the tractor up a few weeks back to start preparing the ground for our next rotation in the heritage nursery. We’ve been growing on the same two areas for a couple of years now and its time to rest the soil in that patch. With three distinct growing areas we can rotate year to year, making sure the resting soil gets some loving in the form of a green manure crop to revitalize the life in the soil.
Things definitely wind back a little in the nursery in winter. The rush of the late summer budding is over and now is the time to collect and grow our rootstocks for the next year’s buds. We’re collecting up apple, pear, peach and quince seeds to sow, and plum cuttings to ‘heel in’. We might even try some fig cuttings and another round of citrus seed.
Merv is still teaching me how to tell which buds have ‘taken’ (successfully struck). But I still look at the nearly naked trees in the nursery and cross my fingers that the budding we did in late summer will be successful because to my untrained eye I can’t believe they’ve really taken until I can see the new growth in Spring!
With Katie’s complex coding system involving coloured pipe cleaners, the three of us did some multi-bud experiments in late summer. We budded up to five different varieties of plum, apricot or both onto individual plum rootstocks. We don’t really know what they’ll do or how they’ll grow, but that’s the beauty of experimenting with fruit trees! If they work, each multi-budded tree will be able to cross-pollinate itself and reduce the amount of space needed to grow multiple varieties of fruit. Perfect for small backyards. Since plums are generally hardy and prolific they are great to experiment in this way with, not to mention you can bud apricots onto plum rootstock too!
The next flurry of activity will be to plant out all the seeds and cuttings. But for now we’re just getting ready for that.
As an orchard kid I grew up familiar with the concept of grafting – I knew that all the fruit trees in the orchard had been grafted, but until I decided to take up the orchard business almost 20 years ago I had no idea how, or why. Nor did I realise that grafting has been around for literally thousands of years – in fact it’s one of the oldest horticultural practices known.
Since coming home to the farm I’ve had the chance to learn these truly ancient skills from my Dad. He’s been growing his own trees for the orchard, as well as “top-working” (changing varieties of mature trees in the orchard) for the last 60 years, so it’s been a fantastic chance to learn from a master grafter.
Hugh and I have been steadily planting, replanting and improving the orchard since we came home, and have put in literally thousands of fruit trees in that time – all of which have been grown in our on-farm nursery. It’s saved us thousands of dollars, allowed us to continuously improve the orchards, and given us the chance to learn and practise all the skills needed to grow our own rootstocks and graft the varieties we’ve needed, which we’ve incorporated into our Grow Great Fruit teaching program and workshops.
Now the orchards are pretty much all planted, and we’re handing over management of them to Ant next season, so there’s less need for the on-farm nursery. However, we didn’t want to lose it, so Sas and I are starting the Harcourt Heritage Fruit Tree Nursery!
Hang on, aren’t I meant to be retiring from farming? And surely Sas already has enough to do…so why are we starting a whole new business?
Well, over the years we’ve built up a pretty good collection of fruit varieties on the farm – 140 at last count! Of them, we’re pretty familiar with at least 80 (the rest are not fruiting yet so we don’t know them), which means we can provide pretty reliable info about them: how they do in this climate, reliable harvest dates, etc.
We’re also growing our own rootstocks from seed and cutting; this not only makes it a very low-risk and low-capital business to get off the ground, but also means the trees we’re growing from scratch are more likely to suit this climate because they’ve been grown here.
But the main reason both Sas and I decided to start a nursery is because we love growing trees, and we just couldn’t resist the opportunity to learn the nursery business from Dad, while he’s still active and interested enough to teach us!
We’re both passionate about learning the many and varied skills you need to produce healthy, vigorous organic trees, so a big part of the appeal for us is that Merv will be here to teach us everything, and oversee the whole operation.
He’s also trying new stuff all the time, which he’s passing on to us. The latest experiment has been trying to grow our own citrus rootstocks, and learning how to graft citrus trees.
Being evergreen, they’re completely different from deciduous trees, so it’s been lots of fun being a bit experimental. And so far, it seems to be working!
Another big appeal is that we know we’ll be helping to preserve some of the older heritage varieties that are hard to buy and in danger of disappearing in favour of the more modern and well-known varieties.
The very first trees are available for sale now – here’s the link to see what we’ve got (anything with MAFG or MAFGS after the name is out of our nursery) but we’ve only taken baby steps so far so there’s not many. For this year at least we’ve continued to source trees from a commercial wholesale nursery as usual, but by next year we hope to massively increase our offering, and have achieved organic certification.
Our new orchard intern Ant will be starting in a couple of weeks – and we’re super excited! But we’re very conscious that he will have missed all of spring, which is the ‘engine room’ of the fruit season, when most of the important stuff that determines how the season will turn out happens.
Along with the intensive training we’ll be providing Ant, we want him to get a good understanding of what each season on the farm is like, to help him with his planning. So while it’s very fresh in our mind, we thought it a great time to sum up what spring on a busy organic orchard looks like. (All these jobs need to be done whether you have 6 trees or 6,000, so hopefully this list should be useful for everyone with fruit trees!)
As we move from winter to spring, the way we prioritise our jobs gradually shifts from those jobs that are good for the trees (and next year’s fruit) in the longer term, like compost and fertiliser, to what’s most crucial for looking after this year’s fruit (short-term) like netting, taping and thinning. Once the fruit is ripe and ready for picking, top of the list every day is, what needs picking today?
It looks like a big list and it can certainly feel overwhelming while you’re in the middle of it, but as long as you’re prepared for the fact that spring needs your full-time attention it’s all quite doable – though wherever possible it’s great to lighten the load by having friends or volunteers to help out, and in our case employing people where necessary, to make sure the jobs all get done.
This one starts way back in August, when we have to start monitoring for the first signs of budswell in the peaches and nectarines, and from then on we’re monitoring regularly for two things (the trees as they flower, and the weather) to make sure all trees have an organic fungicide on at the right time.
Depending on which trees need to be sprayed, this job can take anything from 2 hours to all day, and depending on the weather, it might need doing a couple of times a week, or not for weeks!
With spring comes rain and warmth, and the grass starts growing. This is basically a good thing because all these lovely annuals start pumping carbon into the soil, but we can’t let the weeds get too long around the trees, so it means we need to start slashing – and keep slashing regularly, right through summer until the grass slows down. It’s mostly a tractor job (until we introduce some animals into the orchards), with some back-up work with the whipper-snipper around any young trees.
This job is simple and quick (just putting a bit of double-sided tape around the trunk of the tree. It only takes a couple of minutes per tree), but its one of the most important jobs we do for trees where the main fruit-eating pest are earwigs and garden weevils (cherries and nectarines in particular). One of the tricks we’ve learned over the years—don’t put it off! It’s really good to get this job done nice and early, before the earwigs are in the tree, because if you put the tape on after they’re in the tree then you’re trapping them up there! It’s also a sticky job, so it’s definitely worth gathering a couple of buddies, getting hold of some disposable gloves, and going for it!
Watering itself needs to start happening as soon as the weather is warm enough and the soil dry enough to warrant it, which will be different each year (but was in mid-spring for us this year). But before that, there’s lots of little maintenance jobs that can practically be done in late winter, so you get them out of the way before spring craziness happens—checking the pump, checking and cleaning out all the filters, flushing out the irrigation lines in each orchard, and then turning the system on and checking every dripper. Admittedly, this is a job that’s much more pleasant to do in warm weather (yep, you’re gonna get wet…), but from a time-management point of view, the earlier the better!
Thinning is one of those jobs that you can’t start until the fruit is big enough, but as soon as you start it should have been finished yesterday (before the fruit gets too big)! Luckily this job is also quite spread out, because there’s usually time to finish thinning the apricots by the time the peaches and nectarines are ready, and then we move onto the plums, the apples and the pears. It’s a big job because most trees need thinning (except cherries) and each tree can take a long time. It’s definitely one job where many hands make light work. Here on the farm this is one of the main jobs we employ people to help with each year.
There’s not much point doing all these other jobs if then we let the birds eat the fruit (and they will, they always do!). So, as soon as the thinning and taping is done, it’s time to get the nets on.
Netting is another team effort. For us this means one person to drive the tractor forward to drape the net down over the row of trees, and two to hold the sides of the net to spread it out over the trees. Then we all help with tying the net down so the birds can’t get in underneath. Again, this job doesn’t take very long (only about 1/2 hour per row, plus the setting up time of getting the equipment and finding the right nets!).
Feeding the microbes
In early spring the trees get their energy from the nutrient they stored in their bark, roots and buds the previous season, but as soon as that runs out they need to be able to quickly access whatever they need from the soil via their roots, which means we need to make sure the soil microbes are active and well fed, so they can feed the trees. Compost tea (to top up the microbe populations), microbe foods (mainly liquid fish and kelp), organic matter (compost), and any manure we might get hold of—any or all of these are applied from early spring onwards, and we keep this going right through the growing and fruiting season. Compost tea is great because it is a liquid and so can be injected straight into the irrigation lines. (On a backyard scale it’s an easy knapsack job.)
Picking, packing and selling
So, after all that, it’s kind of a relief when the fruit starts ripening, the cricket season starts (providing perfect packing shed easy listening) and the rhythm morphs into a more steady summer pace of picking, packing and selling all that delicious organic fruit we’ve been nurturing!